Cottage Foods: Combating Antibiotic Resistance Locally?

A lot of things have changed in 2016 (and even early 2017) but at least we all still have one thing in common: we all eat.  An increasing number of people put a premium on eating healthy food from local farmers.  In fact, numerous states consider local food an import part of their identity and economy.  With the thought of promoting agritourism, attracting tourists and visitors to a farm or ranch, and local businesses, many states have introduced cottage foods bills and laws.

But what’s a cottage food?  Is it made in a cottage?  Is it a form of cheese?  No-the definition is actually much broader than either of those.

Cottage foods are defined as non-potentially hazardous food products that are made in someone’s residence as part of a business. These products are allowed for sale in several different states under slightly different laws and regulations.  The largest issue with these products is that producing food in someone’s home can be a recipe for microbial hazards, like contamination with Salmonella or Listeria.

(Image from United States Library of Congress, LC-USW36-949)

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Antibiotic Resistance Trifecta: Interactions of Antibiotics, Microbes, and the Gut Microbiome

There are many concerns about how the gut microbiota is impacted by antibiotics.  Since the widespread use, and sometimes over use of antibiotics began around 80 years ago, bacterial antibiotics has increase worldwide.  This makes bacterial infections harder to treat and increases the risk of severe side effects.  If was only this year in January that a woman died from a bacterial infection contracted after surgery that was resistant to 23 different antibiotics.

It’s clear that bacterial antibiotic resistance has risen alarmingly.  What is less clear is how those antibiotics effect the gut microflora.  Studies recently performed have shown that a dysbiosis, an “unbalanced” or abnormal state of the microbiome, in the gut can cause unchecked microbial growth of low abundance organisms known as opportunistic pathogens.  These opportunists are usually kept in check by other dominant microbes but when those microbes decrease in number, the opportunists can grow unchecked and cause devastating health issues.

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Resources on Antibiotic Resistance and the Microbiome

Below are 2 excellent resource (curtsey of QIAGEN) that give a great background on antibiotic resistance in hospital infections and using metagenomic techniques to study the microbiome.  We do not claim ownership of the slides or any product, techniques, or studies used and are not attempting to promote them.  They all belong to QIAGEN and associated researchers.  We simply recognize the value of the introductory information and wish to share the slides for educational purposes.

The slide decks can be found online below:

2014 NARMS data released!

On November 18, 2016 the 2014 NARMS report was released. The report includes a brand new interactive tool that lets users choose which combination of pathogen, source, and antibiotic results they would like to see. It’s especially useful because it makes comparing current data to past results incredibly easy. The 2014 NARMS report tested a  total of 4,122 Campylobacter isolates from human clinical cases, turkeys, cattle, and swine.  33% of retail chickens carried Campylobacter, the lowest level since 2003. Additionally, 12% of chicken ceca was Campylobacter positive and 6.1% of turkey.

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Macrolide resistance is especially interesting to Campylobacter researchers because they are the first line therapies for human cases and are approved for use in all food-producing animals. Since testing began in 1997, macrolide resistance in C. jejuni has remained below 4%. In 2014, resistance to macrolides fell below 2% in all sources except market hogs. Macrolide resistance in C. coli is  much higher than in C. jejuni. In the 2012-2013 NARMS report the incidence had more than doubled in human, retail, and PR/HACCP chicken C. coli isolates. This led NARMS to consider whole genome sequencing (WGS) to test for the presence of the recently identified erm(B) gene. Noneof the 12 tested isolates carried erm(B). These resistant isolates carried previously identified mutations in the 23 S ribosomal gene, and were not genetically similar indicating that there has not been clonal expansion of this resistance in Campylobacter.

Fluoroquinolones (e.g. ciprofloxacin and nalidixic acid) were banned for use in poultry in 2005. NARMS data indicates that resistance to fluoroquinolones in C. jejuni isolated from humans has reached the highest level since NARMS testing began in 1998. This is important as the fluoroquinolones are an alternative treatment for campylobacteriosis. Retail chicken and PR/HACCP chicken isolates also experienced increased incidence of resistance. Fluoroquinolone resistance could not be determined because of the number of turkey-derived C. jejuni  isolates (n=1). Of the 15 C. coli isolates from turkeys, approximately 40% were resistant to fluoroquinolones.

1.4% of the 1,251 C. jejuni isolates from humans were resistant to gentamicin. None of the eight C. jejuni from chicken ceca or the 369 retail chicken isolates were resistant to gentamicin. To the best of the author’s knowledge, no C. jejuni from turkeys were tested for resistance to gentamicin. This may be due to there only being one C. jejuni isolated from turkeys. However, 13.3% of the 15 C. coli isolates taken from turkey ceca were found to be gentamicin resistant. The Kathariou lab utilizes the yearly NARMS reports for much of their research. Check out more of our website to see what the Kathariou lab is doing to monitor antibiotic resistance in Campylobacter.

 

 

 

IAFP Abstract Erythromycin Resistant C. jejuni Information

The Kathariou lab will be presenting some of our research at the annual IAFP meeting this year.  Below is the abstract and information on the poster that is being presented at the conference.  If you’re there come and check out our research into the spread of erythromycin resistance.

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